Bibliographies are indispensable research tools that list books and articles related to a general or highly specialized field of study in order to help the reader locate and consult a particular book or article. Reference works should always be listed in the same manner within a single bibliography, for reasons of precision, uniformity and clarity. Bibliographic standards have been established for the translation of a reference work listing from one language to another. The bibliographic style presented here is based on International Standard ISO 690 entitled Documentation—Bibliographic References—Content, Form and Structure and on ISBD (International Standard Bibliographic Description) protocols.
Various types of bibliography are possible, depending on the nature of the book or document in which they are to appear. A bibliography may list all the works consulted by a writer, as well as others the writer believes readers will find useful, or it may be restricted to a listing of works actually cited in the text. An annotated bibliography contains comments made by the author concerning the scope, usefulness or other features of the works listed. A bibliography may appear at the end of a book, report or other document (before the index, if any), at the end of a chapter, or as a separate document.
If a book covers a broad subject, or if each chapter in it is devoted to a different topic, it may be more practical to break the source material down into a general bibliography of works covering the subject as a whole and a number of separate listings of works referring to specific chapter topics or fields. The Canada Year Book, for example, contains a listing of general reference works as well as separate listings, at the end of each chapter, on such topics as geography, health, the legal system, art and culture, banking and finance, and transportation. Other arrangements are possible—separate listings for books and articles, for example. In most cases, however, a straightforward, alphabetical, letter-by-letter arrangement (see 9.42 Alphabetical arrangement) will suffice. Choose an arrangement that presents the source works in as clear, orderly and logical a manner as possible.
Romanization is the transcription of characters of another alphabet into Roman characters so as to make a text, and specifically a bibliographic entry, readable. The Library of Congress and the International Organization for Standardization have published conversion tables to facilitate transcription.
If the translated (English) title appears on the title page of a publication in another language, it follows the primary title in the bibliographic entry and is italicized, with a period separating the two elements:
If you yourself must provide a translation, insert the English version of the title (no italics) in brackets after the primary title, capitalize the initial word, and place a period after the closing bracket:
For a publication in which French and English titles are given, both languages should be included:
Note the space on each side of the oblique.
The publisher’s name should not be translated, but for the benefit of the unilingual reader the place of publication may be:
When no translation is given on the title page, check whether translations of the work are already on record at the National Library of Canada, the Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (CISTI) or elsewhere before translating the primary title. Accuracy of translation is essential.
The principal source of information when listing a work should be the work itself. In the case of a monograph (book, pamphlet), the title page and overleaf are the sources of information, whereas for a work published in a series (periodical), the main source is the title page or, in the absence of a title page, the cover, the running title or the copyright page. In the case of a computerized document, information for the bibliographic entry is found on the sticker on the disk, diskette or packaging. For films and videotapes, the main sources of information are the credits and the packaging. If any bibliographic details are missing and cannot be found in the principal source of information, scan the document itself or check library records.
A bibliographic entry for a book should generally comprise the following:
These components are separated by periods and a space, and the second and subsequent lines of an entry are indented.
An entry for an article in a periodical should contain the following:
The article title is enclosed in quotation marks and followed by a period inside the closing quotation marks. Note that the date is placed in parentheses and no comma separates it from the volume or issue number. In accordance with International Standard ISO 690: 1987, the abbreviation p. or pp. may be omitted, and a colon then precedes the page number(s). However, if the volume number has not been given, the abbreviation is used and is preceded by a comma:
(c) Specialized periodicals
Bibliographic, footnote and endnote entries for articles in specialized periodicals in the natural, applied and social sciences are generally presented as follows:
Ivanovic, M., and K. Higita. 1991. Advances in cellular and development biology. Can. J. Biochem. 125: 539–41.
Note the use of periods with the abbreviations.
See 9.25 In-text notes for the author-date system and 9.29 Common abbreviations in notes and bibliographies for title abbreviations.
List a maximum of three names of people or groups of people responsible for the content of the work. Give the author’s name exactly as it appears on the title page of the work. Do not abbreviate a name that has been given in full.
Omit an author’s titles, affiliations or degrees.
(a) One author
The author’s name may be that of a person or persons or of a corporate body. A person’s surname precedes a given name or initials. The article (A, An or The) at the beginning of a corporate author’s name is usually omitted, as is any term identifying the nature of the enterprise, such as Inc. or Co.:
If there are multiple entries by the same author, begin the second and subsequent entries with a 3-em dash and a period:
———. The Robber Bride. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1993.
(b) Two or three authors
Open the entry with the first name mentioned in the document. Only the first name listed is inverted; the rest are transcribed as they appear in the document, separated by a comma:
(c) More than three authors
When there are four or more authors responsible for a single work, the entry should begin with the name of the first author, inverted, followed by a comma, a space and "et al." (short for et alii), meaning "and others":
An editor may have primary responsibility for a work or may share it with a writer. In the former case, the editor’s name is placed first in the bibliographic entry, followed by a comma and the abbreviation ed. (eds. for more than one editor). In the latter case, the editor’s name, preceded by "Edited by," follows the title of the work:
(e) Corporate author
List documents lacking a specified author or editor under the title of the sponsoring body, which may be a country or its government; a department, board, agency or commission; an association, company, institution or firm; or even a sporting event or exhibition.
In the interest of clarity, cite the full name of the corporate author, not its abbreviated form. If the organization is better known by its acronym or by some other shortened version of its name, choose the more familiar, reduced form, as in "Unesco" instead of "United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization."
The name of a superior governing authority is usually listed first in a bibliographic entry, unless the corporate author’s name includes a term indicating the organization’s dependence. Therefore, list
In the case of government publications, begin the entry with the name of the country, province, state or municipality issuing the document:
When listing a court of law, indicate the political entity under which it exercises its power, as in "Canada. Supreme Court" or "Manitoba. Court of Queen’s Bench."
(f) Pseudonyms and anonymous works
Authors better known by a pseudonym than by their real name should be listed under that pseudonym. Where required, give the author’s real name or place "pseud." in brackets after the pseudonym. In the case of anonymous works for which the author’s identity has been established, place the author’s real name in square brackets. Otherwise, list the work by its title followed by the rest of the bibliographic information. Do not use "anonymous" or "anon." unless the author really is unknown:
Note the following conventions for the order of bibliographic entries:
The rules given in 9.42 Alphabetical arrangement for alphabetizing index entries also apply to bibliographies.
Transcribe the title as it appears on the title page; the original capitalization and punctuation need not be retained. Italicize titles of published works such as books or periodicals. If the work being listed is published within another document, such as an article in a periodical, set the title off in quotation marks:
If the title is in two or more languages, transcribe the titles as they appear, separating them with an oblique (/) and a space on each side of the oblique:
See 9.06 Translation for information on translated titles.
Any subtitle should follow the title after a colon and a space. If the title and subtitle are italicized, so is the colon:
Mention the name of the writer of the preface, foreword or introduction only if there is specific reference to that part of the book and if the writer is not the same as the author of the rest of the work. List the author of the cited preface, foreword or introduction, then the title of the book, followed by the name of the author of the book itself:
Place the name of a person or group who is not primarily responsible for the work itself, such as a compiler, editor, translator or illustrator, after the title, using the appropriate term or abbreviation ("Comp. by," "Edited by," Trans. by," "Illus. by"):
If no author is mentioned, the name of the editor, translator or compiler takes the place of the author:
When citing an edition other than the first one, indicate the edition used in Arabic numerals and abbreviate the word "edition" as "ed.":
The words "reprint," "printing" and "impression" do not indicate a new edition.
(a) Place of publication
If a document has more than one place of publication, choose the Canadian city, if any, or the first city mentioned. When it is necessary to differentiate a place of publication from others with the same name or to identify one that is not well known, add a geographic identifier (name of country, province or state), in an abbreviated form:
If the place of publication is not given, insert "N.p." for "no place of publication," in square brackets.
Listed after the place of publication, the publisher’s name is preceded by a colon and a space, and followed by a comma. The publisher’s name should be transcribed as it appears in the document, but articles and abbreviations such as Co., Ltd. and Inc. are usually dropped:
The publisher’s name may be given in full or in an acceptable abbreviated form. For abbreviations of publishers’ names, consult Canadian Books in Print and Books in Print.
If the name of the publisher is not provided, insert "n.p." for "no publisher," in square brackets.
(c) Date of publication
The date of publication is preceded by a comma and is always written in Arabic numerals. If the date of publication is not provided, add the copyright date instead.
If neither the date of publication nor the copyright date can be ascertained, check library records for the missing information. You can either give an estimated date of publication followed by a question mark, enclosing both in square brackets, or add "n.d." for "no date of publication." Give inclusive dates for a multivolume work:
If a multivolume work has yet to be completed and all the volumes in print are listed, indicate the date of the first volume, followed by an en dash:
This item is reserved for works that are a part of a special collection. Include any number that has been assigned to the document cited. The name of the collection, followed by a comma, the abbreviation "No." and the number of the document are placed after the title:
(a) Conference proceedings
Conference proceedings are identified by the title of the conference:
Give the speaker’s name, the title of the lecture in quotation marks, followed by a descriptive identifier (seminar, address, lecture, etc.), the sponsoring organization, the location and the date:
List a published dissertation in the same way as other books, but identify the work as a dissertation and mention the academic institution:
Leave the title of an unpublished dissertation in roman type and enclose it in quotation marks:
(d) Electronic documents
Documents stored on a CD-ROM, computer disk or database are generally listed by title. The citation must specify, in square brackets, the type of document being listed and include information needed to identify and retrieve the work:
For further information regarding the listing of electronic sources, refer to International Standard ISO 690-2 Information and Documentation—Bibliographic References—Electronic Documents or Parts Thereof.
(e) Film and videotape
Depending on the focus of your study, a film or videotape can be listed under its title or the name of the director, producer, screenwriter or principal actor. Whatever the first component of the bibliographic entry may be, specify the medium of the work in square brackets at the end of the entry:
(f) Musical recordings
Give the name of the composer, title of the recording (or works on the recording), artist’s name (where applicable), manufacturer, catalogue number (if known), year of issue, and any other pertinent information:
Bibliographic entries for published musical scores are similar to those for books.
Enter the name of the interviewee, the type of interview (personal, telephone, etc.), and the date:
(h) Radio and television programs
List the entry under the title of the program and include the network or local station, the city, the broadcast date, together with other pertinent information. Note that titles of television and radio shows are italicized and that segments and episodes are set off in quotation marks:
(i) Theatrical performances
In addition to the title of the play, the playwright, director and principal actor, give the name of the theatre, the city and the date of performance, along with any other pertinent information:
(j) Legislative documents
Acts, regulations and legal notices are published in federal and provincial government gazettes, which should be listed as follows:
Note that the title of the gazette is italicized and that the jurisdiction and legislative body need not be mentioned.
Adopt the following order for order papers and notices: name of government; name of department, agency or institution; title of document; legislature and session numbers; volume and issue numbers (if any); issue date; and publication data:
When referring to a work that has been cited within another, list as the first component of your entry the work that is the focus of your text: either the work that has been quoted or the work in which it is quoted. The first-mentioned work, or primary reference, should be listed in the standard fashion. For the second document, or secondary source, the bibliographic data should be separated by commas. If the secondary source is a book, enclose the publication data in parentheses:
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