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TERMIUM Plus®

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TERMIUM Plus® Help File

Quick tips for optimizing the display

Screen resolution

TERMIUM Plus® is designed to work with the standard 1024 × 768 screen resolution. Using a higher or lower resolution will affect the look and feel of the application, as well as the size of the text and format of the page.

Follow these instructions to change your screen resolution:

  • On your desktop, click on My Computer > Control Panel > Display > Settings.
  • In the Screen resolution box, move the slider to the appropriate resolution.
  • Click on Apply and then on OK to save the change.

F11 key

  • In either Internet Explorer or Firefox, press the F11 key to hide part of the menu at the top as well as the taskbar at the bottom, giving you more space to display the records.
  • To unhide the menu and application bars, press the F11 key again.

Note: In Internet Explorer, it is possible to make the taskbar reappear momentarily by positioning the cursor where the taskbar was before it disappeared.

Note: In Firefox, it is possible to make the navigation bar at the top reappear momentarily by positioning the cursor where the navigation bar was before it disappeared.

Languages

When you start TERMIUM Plus® for the first time, the English, French and Spanish columns (language modules) are displayed by default in the results (records) window. Hiding the Spanish column will give you more space for the information contained in the remaining columns. To change the language you wish to see in the first column and to hide the Spanish column:

  • Click on My TERMIUM.
  • Under Order of display of the official languages of Canada, open the dropdown list and select the language which will appear in the first column of each record.
  • Under Option to display one of the non-official languages (Spanish or Portuguese), select the option Neither in the dropdown list.
  • Click on Save Settings.

To see the Portuguese module:

  • Click on My TERMIUM.
  • Under Option to display one of the non-official languages (Spanish or Portuguese)), select the option Portuguese in the dropdown list.
  • Click on Save Settings.

Text size

  • To increase or decrease text size in Internet Explorer 8.0 or older, click on View > Text Size. The current size is marked with a dot.
  • To increase or decrease text size in Firefox, click on View > Zoom > Zoom In or Zoom Out (the default size is 100%).

Note: These tips may not work fully with another browser.

How do I search TERMIUM Plus®?

Using TERMIUM Plus® is much like using a quadrilingual dictionary.

To search TERMIUM Plus®:

  • Select the English Terms, French Terms, Spanish Terms or Portuguese Terms simple search key corresponding to the language of the term.
  • Enter the term (a term can contain more than one word) in the search field (field in which is written Type your search term...).
  • Launch the search either by clicking the Launch button Launch the search to the right of the search field or by pressing the Enter key on your keyboard.

If the term is in the data bank, all the records retrieved are displayed automatically starting with the most recent. You can scroll through them using the scroll bar on the right-hand side of the screen or the scroll wheel on your mouse if you are using Internet Explorer or Firefox.

If too many records are displayed, you can choose the relevant subject field from the list of Results by subject field. To open the drop-down list, click on the field.

Main components of the TERMIUM Plus® search/record display window

Component Function and Description

Search Keys

This button allows you to select the type of search you want to perform (simple or advanced).

There are five (5) choices for a simple search:

  • English Terms
  • French Terms
  • Spanish Terms
  • Portuguese Terms
  • All Terms

There are 13 choices for an advanced search:

  • English Words - entry terms
  • English Words - textual support
  • English Records

  • French Words - entry terms
  • French Words - textual support
  • French Records

  • Spanish Words - entry terms
  • Spanish Words - textual support
  • Spanish Records

  • Portuguese Words - entry terms
  • Portuguese Words - textual support
  • Portuguese Records

  • All Records

Before entering your search term, you must select a search key matching the language of the term entered in the search field.

Term search field

This is the field below Type your search term.... It is used to enter the term (one or more words) you are searching for.

Launch the search button Launch the search

This magnifier button, which is immediately to the right of the search field, will launch the search.

Pressing the Enter key on your keyboard will also launch the search.

Erase

This button erases ALL the characters in the term search field.

Results by subject field

This is a drop-down list which displays the subject fields on all the records found including the number of records for each field. Subject fields are listed in alphabetical order, and those starting with accented characters are listed at the end.

By default, TERMIUM Plus® displays all the records which were found. You can browse through them using the scroll bar on the right-hand side of the screen or the scroll wheel on your mouse if you are using Internet Explorer or Firefox.

After a search, if records are found, the display option All Subject Fields (display of records in all subject fields) appears in the field. If the search is negative, the following message appears: No records were found. Please try again.

Note: After a search, TERMIUM Plus® displays a maximum of 200 records. The number following a particular subject field in the Results by subject field list corresponds to the number of records in those 200 records which are associated with that subject field. However, when you click on the subject field, TERMIUM Plus® will display ALL the records in the database which are associated with that subject field. Hence, the number of records found may be higher than the number which appears next to the subject field in the Results by subject field list.

Index

After a search, TERMIUM Plus® displays a list of indexed terms in the left-hand column labelled Index. The terms are listed in strict alphabetical order. The language of the indexed terms match the language selected using the search keys. The term entered in the search field and/or the terms that are alphabetically close to the term entered appear in this column. To see the corresponding record(s), click on a term in the column. The left and right arrow buttons at the top of the Index column allow you to see previous or next entries.

Records Display Window

The records are displayed below the Results by subject field in the available English, French, Spanish or Portuguese language combinations. By default, TERMIUM Plus® displays all records. You can scroll through them using the scroll bar on the right-hand side of the screen. In the case of Internet Explorer and Firefox, you can also use the scroll wheel on your mouse.

For each language, the main term appears in bold at the top of the record. The search term appears in red when it is an exact match with the term entered in the search field.

To do a simple search:

  • Enter the term you wish to find in the search field. For example, to find the term IN-BASKET EXERCISE, enter the term in-basket exercise in the search field, making sure that the English Terms search key has been selected.
  • Click on the Launch button Launch the search to the right of the search field or press the Enter key on your keyboard to launch the search.

    If no records are found, a message will say so in the field entitled Results by subject field. In this case, refer to Search Tips.

    If the search is successful, the number of records in which your term appears as well as the number of records by subject field are displayed in the Results by subject field list. You can scroll through all the records found or you can view only those associated with a particular subject field. To do so:

    • Click on the field to display the list of available subject fields;
    • Click on the subject field of interest (the subject fields are listed in alphabetical order, and those starting with accented characters are listed at the end);
    • Click on the Launch button Launch the search to the right of this field to launch the command and see the records.

Search Tips

  • Make sure that the search key is in the language of the term being queried.
  • Check the entries in the index on the left.
  • Check the spelling of the term which you entered.
  • When you search a term in English, enter the Canadian, British and American spelling of the term.
  • Search for the singular and the plural forms of the term.
  • Search for the masculine and feminine forms of the term.
  • Search for spelling variants of the term, such as forms with and without a hyphen.
  • Search for any synonyms of the term.
  • Search using wildcards (*,?).
  • Change the order of words in the term. For example, search for DNA-RNA hybridization as well as RNA-DNA hybridization.
  • Change the search key and try querying for a term which you think might be an equivalent term in the target language. Here is a fictitious example: You are searching for the term accord commercial using the French Terms search key, but no record is found. Switch to the English Terms search key and search for possible equivalents such as trade agreement or commercial agreement.
  • Search parts of the term. For example, if you are searching for the term interlocking paving stone, search for paving stone and interlocking stone.
  • Use not only the Simple Search keys (i.e. Terms keys), but Advanced Search keys (i.e. Words and Records keys) as well. To do so:

    • Click on the Search Keys button and select a search key under Advanced Search which corresponds to the language of your term. The options are:

      • English Words - entry terms
      • English Words - textual support
      • English Records

      • French Words - entry terms
      • French Words - textual support
      • French Records

      • Spanish Words - entry terms
      • Spanish Words - textual support
      • Spanish Records

      • Portuguese Words - entry terms
      • Portuguese Words - textual support
      • Portuguese Records

      • All Records (searches for your term in the four languages)
    • Click on Back to Search Results on the upper right-hand side of the window and launch the search for your term.
  • Use Boolean search operators, noting that the Boolean search operators can only be used with Advanced Search keys (i.e. Words and Records keys). To do so:

    • Enter your word or the first word in your word combination in the search field.
    • Enter a Boolean search operator:

      • a plus sign [ + ] to use the Boolean operator AND,
      • a comma [ , ] to use the Boolean operator OR,
      • an exclamation mark [ ! ] to use the Boolean operator AND NOT.
    • Enter your additional word(s) separated by the Boolean operator of your choice.
    • When the last word has been entered, click on the Launch button Launch the search or press the Enter key on your keyboard to launch the search.
  • Make sure the term contains neither a Boolean search operator (a plus sign, a comma or an exclamation mark) nor a wildcard (an asterisk or a question mark). For more information on how to perform a search when the term includes such characters, see the sections entitled Can I use wildcards in my searches? or How can I use Boolean operators?

What kind of searches can I do in TERMIUM Plus®?

There are two types of searches you can do in TERMIUM Plus®: a simple search and an advanced search.

  1. Simple Search (without Boolean operators)

    For each of the four languages (English, French, Spanish and Portuguese) supported by TERMIUM Plus®, you can search for a term (a single word or a group of words) by selecting a search key (using the Search Keys button) that matches the language of the term you are entering in the search field. Here are a few examples:

    • To find the equivalent of the English term HOME AUTOMATION, select English Terms as the search key, enter the term in the search field and launch the search.
    • To find the equivalent of the French term APPAREIL D'IMAGERIE PAR RÉSONNANCE MAGNÉTIQUE, select French Terms as the search key, enter the term in the search field and launch the search.
    • To find the equivalent of the Spanish term UÑA EN CUCHARA, select Spanish Terms as the search key, enter the term in the search field and launch the search.
    • To find the equivalent of the Portuguese term BROCA DOS RAMOS, select Portuguese Terms as the search key, enter the term in the search field and launch the search.

    IMPORTANT
    One would usually start searching by using a Simple Search key (i.e. the English Terms, French Terms, Spanish Terms or Portuguese Terms key) and, without a satisfactory response, continue searching by using Advanced Search keys (i.e. Words or Records keys).

  2. Advanced Search (with Boolean operators)

    You can also perform an advanced search using the Boolean operators AND ( + ), OR ( , ) or AND NOT ( ! ). These operators allow you to search for more than one word in a record, using the Advanced Search keys.

    In this type of search, you must enter the words being queried and the words you wish to exclude by connecting them using Boolean operators.

    For example, to find all records containing each of the words COMITÉ and JEUNESSE and TRAVAIL, click the Search Keys button, select the advanced search key French Records, enter COMITÉ+JEUNESSE+TRAVAIL and launch the search by clicking the Launch button Launch the search to the right of the search field or by pressing the Enter key on your keyboard.

Understanding Search Keys

What am I searching when I use simple search keys English Terms, French Terms, Spanish Terms, Portuguese Terms or All Terms?

These simple search keys limit the search to one language and to records that contain the term being queried (a term can contain more than one word). In addition, the system searches for the term only in the terms section of the record, i.e. the main entry terms, synonyms, abbreviations, spelling variants and key terms. In other words, the system does not search for the term in the definitions, contexts, observations or phraseologisms. The All Terms simple search key allows you to do that search in all four languages instead of one. In other words, the system searches for the exact term in the main entry terms, synonyms, abbreviations, spelling variants and key terms, regardless of the language.

Indexing: Note that for simple search keys, the full term (word or group of words that have a specific meaning in a subject field) is indexed, for example "office canadien de commercialisation" or "sucre à la crème." In other words, the full term (and not the individual words that make up the term) provides access to the record. The system thus searches for the record that has a main entry term, synonym, abbreviation, spelling variant or key term that exactly matches the term entered. The number of records found can vary significantly.

For example, if you search for the word FOYER using French Terms as the simple search key, the search results will not include the term FOYER D'ACCUEIL, because this term does not exactly match what you have entered in the search field. To retrieve this record, you must enter the full term FOYER D'ACCUEIL in the search field. Similarly, if you are searching only for FOYER, you should enter only FOYER.

Note: When you use All Terms as the simple search key, you must insert a space for all stop words. (A stop word is a word that is ignored by the system in a search.) For example, if you enter the full term FOYER D'ACCUEIL in the search field using the simple search key All Terms, no records will be found. You must enter the term as FOYER ACCUEIL (or FOYER 'ACCUEIL). See the table below for the list of stop words in each language.

List of stop words in TERMIUM Plus® (words or characters to replace with spaces)

IN FRENCH
a, au, aux avec, d, dans, de, des, donc, du, en, et, l, la, le, les, ni, ou, par, pour, sur, un, une

IN ENGLISH
a, an, and, at, but, by, for, from, in, nor, of, or, s , the, to, with

IN SPANISH
a, al, con, de, del, dentro, desde, e, el, la, las, lo, los, ni, o, para, pero, por, sobre, u, un, uno, y

IN PORTUGUESE
a, da, das, de, do, dos, e, em, o, ou, para, sobre, um, uma

On the other hand, the non-alphabetical characters listed below are indexed and must be entered for the system to find the record.

hyphen
-
underscore
_
slash
/
currency symbol
$
equal sign
=
percent sign
%
digits
from 0 to 9

IMPORTANT
One would usually start searching by using a Simple Search key (i.e. the English Terms, French Terms, Spanish Terms or Portuguese Terms key) and, without a satisfactory response, continue searching by using Advanced Search keys (i.e. Words or Records keys).

What am I searching when I use the advanced search keys English Words - entry terms, French Words - entry terms, Spanish Words - entry terms or Portuguese Words - entry terms?

These advanced search keys limit the search to one language and to the main entry terms, synonyms, abbreviations, spelling variants and key terms on the record. However, in this case, the system searches for the individual words in the term rather than the full term. The system therefore includes records on which the words in the term being queried are part of the main entry term, synonyms, abbreviations, spelling variants and key terms. Note: on the records retrieved, the words are not necessarily adjacent or in the order entered.

Indexing: For advanced search keys, the system indexes each word in the main entry term.

In the case of the term DRAINAGE PAR EXPANSION DU GAZ LIBRE for example, the system indexes the words DRAINAGE, EXPANSION, GAZ and LIBRE, and finds the record containing this term using one of these search keys and only one of these words, such as LIBRE. However, a very large number of records would be retrieved, because the system will find each record containing the word LIBRE in an entry term. It is therefore strongly recommended that you use the Boolean operators AND, OR and AND NOT to limit the number of records found.

For example, if you choose French Words - entry terms as the advanced search key and enter FOYER+ACCUEIL, the system finds each record containing the words FOYER and ACCUEIL in the French entry terms. However, these two words will not necessarily be adjacent or in the order entered, and could be part of any entry term or key term.

IMPORTANT
One would usually start searching by using a Simple Search key (i.e. the English Terms, French Terms, Spanish Terms or Portuguese Terms key) and, without a satisfactory response, continue searching by using Advanced Search keys (i.e. Words or Records keys).

What am I searching when I use the advanced search keys English Words - textual support, French Words - textual support, Spanish Words - textual support or Portuguese Words - textual support?

These advanced search keys limit the search to one language and the textual support (definitions, contexts, observations and phraseologisms) on the records. In this case, the system searches only the textual support for the word as you have entered it in the search field.

Indexing: For advanced search keys, the system indexes each word in the main textual support. For example, in the case of the DEFINITION of famille d'accueil (FAMILLE QUI PREND CHARGE D'UNE OU DE PLUSIEURS PERSONNES, ENFANTS OU ADULTES, QUI LEUR SONT CONFIÉES PAR UN CENTRE DE SERVICES SOCIAUX ET DONT LE NOMBRE EST FIXÉ PAR LA LOI), the system indexes each word and finds the record containing this definition using one of these search keys and only one of these words, such as SERVICES. However, a very large number of records will be retrieved because the system will find all the records containing the word SERVICES in the textual support. It is therefore strongly recommended that you use the Boolean operators AND, OR and AND NOT to limit the number of records found.

Remember to search for the plural form of terms when you use this key. In fact, the words are often in the plural form in textual support such as context.

IMPORTANT
One would usually start searching by using a Simple Search key (i.e. the English Terms, French Terms, Spanish Terms or Portuguese Terms key) and, without a satisfactory response, continue searching by using Advanced Search keys (i.e. Words or Records keys).

What am I searching when I use the advanced search keys English Records, French Records, Spanish Records, Portuguese Records or All Records?

These advanced search keys limit the search to one language, but allow you to search in all parts of the record (entry terms and textual support). For example, if you search for the word FOYER using the French Records advanced search key, the search results will include all records containing the word FOYER in the French entry term (main entry term, synonyms, abbreviations, spelling variants and key words) and in the French textual support (definition, contexts, observations and phraseologisms).

The All Records advanced search key allows you to search not only in all parts of the record, but also in the four languages. In other words, the system searches for the term in the English, French, Spanish and Portuguese entry terms and in the English, French, Spanish and Portuguese textual support.

Index: For advanced search keys, each word is indexed. It is therefore strongly recommended that you use the Boolean operators AND, OR and AND NOT to limit the number of records found.

IMPORTANT
One would usually start searching by using a Simple Search key (i.e. the English Terms, French Terms, Spanish Terms or Portuguese Terms key) and, without a satisfactory response, continue searching by using Advanced Search keys (i.e. Words or Records keys).

What type of information is displayed on a record?

A record provides terminology information. Each record covers a single concept (meaning), presents the terms that designate this concept in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese, and indicates the subject fields for that particular concept.

TERMIUM Plus® displays the records one after another starting with the most recent. The information is presented in three columns or language modules: one for English, one for French and one for Spanish or Portuguese. The number of columns (languages) and their order can be changed by clicking on the My TERMIUM option (blue button in the menu to the left of the search field). You can scroll through the records using the scroll bar on the right-hand side of the screen or your mouse's scroll wheel if you use Internet Explorer or Firefox. If too many records are displayed, you can choose the relevant subject field from the list of Results by subject field (to open the drop-down list, click on the field).

Each language module includes the following elements:

Subject Fields

The subject fields in which the term is used are displayed at the top of the record. The subject field is essential to allow you to find the record that matches the concept (meaning) that you are seeking.

The subject field classification system has three levels: classes, divisions and sections. For example, Medicine is a CLASS or broad subject field divided into DIVISONS: Digestive Tract, Respiratory Tract, Diagnostic Procedures, Surgery, Pharmacology, etc. The Surgery DIVISION is subdivided into SECTIONS: Anesthesia and Recovery, Heart Surgery, Dental Surgery, etc. In general, the SECTION (the most precise subject field) appears on the record.

A record can have several subject fields. The subject field most commonly associated with the concept, the primary subject field, is at the top of the list and answers the question "What is it?" (it provides information on the basic nature of the concept). The other subject fields on the record are usually fields of application and answer the question "For what is it used?".

Entries

The entries (terms) indicate the concept covered by the record: the most common terms are listed first and are displayed in bold, followed by synonyms, spelling variants and abbreviations (initialisms, acronyms, etc.) if applicable. Each entry is followed by parameters indicating, for example, the correctness of the term, the gender of the French, Spanish and Portuguese terms, the country or region where the term is used and standardization of the term, if such is the case. In some cases, "SEE OBS" indicates that the record contains an observation. The Source hyperlink after each term lets you see the bibliographic origin of the term.

Textual Supports

This part of the record explains the concept covered by the record or illustrates the term's usage. It may contain a definition (DEF), a context (CONT), a linguistic or technical observation (OBS) or examples of phraseology (PHR). Each textual support is followed by a Source hyperlink which provides information on its origin. Textual supports are usually provided by documents written in the term's source language. However, textual supports (definitions and observations in particular) may be written by the terminologists who maintain the TERMIUM Plus® data bank.

Key terms

The record sometimes includes key terms to help find a record. These are terms other than those in the entries section of a record, but which are directly related to the concept. They can be spelling or semantic variants, or masculine, feminine, singular or plural forms of the term, or cases of inversion of terms. If, for example, you use the English Terms search key and enter the English term WEEK-END in the search field, the system will find the record for the term WEEKEND which included the key term WEEK-END.

Complementary Documents

In some cases, a hyperlink to complementary documents will provide information to supplement the textual support (definition, observation, etc.).

Sources

The Source hyperlink provides more information about the source (document or person) of the entry term or textual support (definition, observation, etc.). To see the sources (or the bibliographic information) for a record, click on the grey Source button immediately following the entries or textual support.

Date

The date (year-month-day) on which the record was created or updated is displayed at the bottom of the record.

Universal Entries

This field is used for terms which are common to all the language modules, for example:

  • CHEMICAL FORMULA: This is a notation using chemical symbols to denote the qualitative and quantitative composition of an element and how its components are associated, for example C3H6Cl2O.
  • PHYSICS FORMULA: This is a concise notation using symbols to precisely define a physics relation or principle, such as the formula for the equivalence of mass and energy E = mc².
  • MATHEMATICAL FORMULA: This is a concise notation using symbols to precisely define a mathematical relation or principle, such as the Pythagorean theorem a² + b² = c².
  • CHEMICAL SYMBOL: This is an international symbol (an uppercase letter or two letters in which the first is an uppercase) representing a chemical element, such as Na for sodium, O for oxygen and K for potassium.
  • CAS NUMBER: This is a unique number, for example 96-23-1, assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) of the American Chemical Society to identify a chemical in its Chemical Registry System.
  • INTERNATIONAL SYMBOL: This is a conventional sign consisting of a letter or group of letters, a pictogram, a sign, etc., that is used to precisely represent a being, thing or idea independently of language frontiers. The symbols entered in the universal entries field are mostly symbols of scientific and technical notation, such as the symbols for units of measurement. The following are a few examples of international symbols: "kg" (kilogram), "C" (Celsius), "µs" (microsecond) and "Bq" (becquerel).
  • LATIN TERMS: This is a term in Latin. Although Latin terms are used in numerous subject fields, only Latin terms related to the scientific nomenclature (taxa), for example Falco peregrinus, are entered in the Universal Entry field.
  • CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM CODES
  • FORM CODES
  • ISO/IEC 2382 ITEM NUMBERS
  • CIVILIAN AND MILITARY OCCUPATIONAL CODES
  • PUBLICATION CODES

How do I display the subject field breakdown?

If TERMIUM Plus® finds one or more records matching your search term, the subject fields on the records and the number of records for each subject field are listed in the field entitled Results by subject field.

Note: After a search, if records are found, the display option All Subject Fields (display of records in all subject fields) appears in the field. If the search is negative, the following message appears: No records were found. Please try again.

You can either view all records or only those associated with a particular subject field. To see the latter:

  • Click on the field to open the drop-down list of subject fields;
  • Click on the subject field of interest (subject fields are listed in alphabetical order and those starting with accented characters are listed at the end);
  • Click on the Launch button Launch the search on the right of the field to launch the search.

The usage fields for the term are displayed at the top of the record and indicate the term's related subject field. The subject field is essential to allow you to find the record that matches the concept (meaning) that you are seeking.

The subject field classification system has three levels: classes, divisions and sections. For example, Medicine is a CLASS or broad subject field divided into DIVISONS: Digestive Tract, Respiratory Tract, Diagnostic Procedures, Surgery, Pharmacology, etc. The Surgery DIVISION is subdivided into SECTIONS: Anesthesia and Recovery, Heart Surgery, Dental Surgery, etc. In general, the SECTION (the most precise subject field) appears on the record.

A record can have several subject fields. The subject field most commonly associated with the concept, the primary subject field, is at the top of the list and answers the question "What is it?" (it provides information on the basic nature of the concept). The other subject fields on the record are usually fields of application and answer the question "For what is it used?"

How do I search for abbreviations (acronyms, initialisms, etc.)?

  • Enter the letters without spaces between the letters.
  • Enter the letters with a space between each letter.
  • Enter the letters with a space after each letter, but leave out the following transparent letters:

    • In French: a, d, l
    • In English: a, s
    • In Spanish: a, e, o, u, y
    • In Portuguese: a, e, o
  • For example, to query NATO, type:

    • NATO
    • N A T O
    • N T O
  • For example, to query the term B&B, type:

    • B B

Can I use wildcards in my searches?

Yes. Wildcards are special characters that can replace one or more letters of your search term. Use the wildcard characters, alone or in combination, to search for word variations. You can place a wildcard anywhere in a search term except at the beginning of the term.

Types of wildcards, their function and examples of usage

Wildcard Function and Examples

*

ASTERISK

Insert an asterisk to replace one or more consecutive characters within a term. You must enter at least four characters before inserting an asterisk. Here are some examples:

If you search for TRAV* in the French terms, the system retrieves the records on the following terms:

TRAVAIL ASSUJETTI AU TEMPS,
TRAVÉE DES ROUES,
TRAVERSE DE POTEAU,
TRAVERSELLITE,
etc.

If you search for HOUSE * COMMITTEE in the English terms, the system retrieves the records on the following terms:

HOUSE FOREIGN AFFAIRS COMMITTEE,
HOUSE OF COMMONS COMMITTEE,
HOUSE OF COMMONS TRANSPORT COMMITTEE,
HOUSE MERCHANT MARINE AND FISHERIES COMMITTEE,
etc.

?

QUESTION MARK

Insert a question mark to replace a single character in a term. Here are some examples:

If you search for BOU ? in the French terms, the system retrieves the records on the following terms:

BOUE,
BOUT,
BOUL,
etc.

If you search for CA?E in the English terms, the system retrieves the records on the following terms:

CARE,
CASE,
CAGE,
etc.

Note: The question mark cannot replace a mandatory character (hyphen or slash).

IMPORTANT
Some terms include characters which may be mistaken for wildcards (asterisk or question mark) or Boolean search operators (plus sign, comma or exclamation mark). This is the case of the names of many chemical compounds. The system will not find the records for those terms unless you remove these characters as you enter the term.

Here are a few examples:

  • To retrieve the record on a term containing a Boolean search operator such as the comma in 1,1-difluoroethane, you would use the Simple Search key (i.e. English Terms), replace the comma in the term entered with a space and launch the search. You would therefore enter the term as follows:

    1 1-difluoroethane

  • To retrieve the record on a term containing a wildcard such as the question mark at the end of the brochure entitled What About SchoolNet? , you would use the Simple Search key (i.e. English Terms), delete the question mark in the term entered and launch the search. You would therefore enter the term as follows:

    What About SchoolNet

  • To retrieve the record on a term containing not only a Boolean operator such as the comma, but a wildcard such as the question mark in the middle of the name of the brochure entitled What Does the Future Hold? - Health Care, Health and Medicine, you would use the Simple Search key (i.e. English Terms), delete the comma as well as the question mark in the term entered and launch the search. You would therefore enter the term as follows:

    What Does the Future Hold - Health Care Health and Medicine

How can I use the index to select search terms?

If you are not sure which term to use in your search, you can browse the index on the left and choose one of the terms listed there. First, type at least the first four letters of your search term, then add the wildcard [ * ] and launch the search. Indexed terms close to the term you are seeking appear in the left-hand column entitled Index.

To select a term from the index:

  • Scroll through the entries using the previous and next arrow buttons until you see the term you wish to use.
  • Click on the term to display the corresponding records.

How can I use Boolean operators?

Note: The Boolean search operators can only be used with the advanced search keys.

The Boolean search operators AND [ + ], OR [ , ] and AND NOT [ ! ] are used to link search terms for more complex searches.

Types of Boolean search operators, their function and examples of usage

Operator Function and Examples

AND [ + ]

When you use AND [ + ] to link two words, TERMIUM Plus® searches for records that contain both words. Using AND narrows the search and thereby reduces the number of records found.

Example: enter COMMITTEE+ACID+RAIN in the search field and launch the search using one of the English advanced search keys (i.e. English Words - entry terms or English Words - textual support or English Records).

This search finds records that contain all three words COMMITTEE, ACID and RAIN regardless of the word order. These words are not necessarily adjacent on the records found.

Default

By default, when you enter words without a Boolean operator, TERMIUM Plus® performs a search as if you had entered the term using the AND [ + ] operator. However, unlike using AND [ + ], TERMIUM Plus® searches for these terms in the same order as you entered them, but not necessarily adjacent to each other.

Example: Enter MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL in the search field and launch the search using one of the English advanced search keys.

This search finds records that contain the words MANAGEMENT and PROTOCOL in that order. However, these terms are not necessarily adjacent on the records.

OR [ , ]

When you use OR [,] to link two words, TERMIUM Plus® searches for records that contain at least one of these two words. Using OR expands the search and increases the number of records found.

Example: Enter DISC,DISK in the search field and launch the search using one of the English advanced search keys.

This search finds records that contain either DISC or DISK or both words.

AND NOT [ ! ]

When you use AND NOT [ ! ] to link two words, TERMIUM Plus® excludes records that contain the word following this operator.

Example: Enter OPERATIONAL+BUDGET!MULTIYEAR in the search field and launch the search using one of the English advanced search keys.

This search finds records that contain the words OPERATIONAL and BUDGET, but not the word MULTIYEAR.

IMPORTANT
Some terms include characters which may be mistaken for wildcards (asterisk or question mark) or Boolean search operators (plus sign, comma or exclamation mark). This is the case of the names of many chemical compounds. The system will not find the records for those terms unless you remove these characters as you enter the term.

Here are a few examples:

  • To retrieve the record on a term containing a Boolean search operator such as the comma in 1,1-difluoroethane, you would use the Simple Search key (i.e. English Terms), replace the comma in the term entered with a space and launch the search. You would therefore enter the term as follows:

    1 1-difluoroethane

  • To retrieve the record on a term containing a wildcard such as the question mark at the end of the brochure entitled What About SchoolNet?, you would use the Simple Search key (i.e. English Terms), delete the question mark in the term entered and launch the search. You would therefore enter the term as follows:

    What About SchoolNet

  • To retrieve the record on a term containing not only a Boolean operator such as the comma, but a wildcard such as the question mark in the middle of the name of the brochure entitled What Does the Future Hold? - Health Care, Health and Medicine, you would use the Simple Search key (i.e. English Terms), delete the comma as well as the question mark in the term entered and launch the search. You would therefore enter the term as follows:

    What Does the Future Hold - Health Care Health and Medicine

What can I do when no records are found?

  • Make sure that the search key is in the language of the term being queried.
  • Check the entries in the index on the left.
  • Check the spelling of the term which you entered.
  • When you search a term in English, enter the Canadian, British and American spelling of the term.
  • Search for the singular and the plural forms of the term.
  • Search for the masculine and feminine forms of the term.
  • Search for spelling variants of the term, such as forms with and without a hyphen.
  • Search for any synonyms of the term.
  • Search using wildcards (*,?).
  • Change the order of words in the term. For example, search for DNA-RNA hybridization as well as RNA-DNA hybridization.
  • Change the search key and try querying for a term which you think might be an equivalent term in the target language. Here is a fictitious example: You are searching for the term accord commercial using the French Terms search key, but no record is found. Switch to the English Terms search key and search for possible equivalents such as trade agreement or commercial agreement.
  • Search parts of the term. For example, if you are searching for the term interlocking paving stone, search for paving stone and interlocking stone.
  • Use not only the Simple Search keys (i.e. Terms keys), but Advanced Search keys (i.e. Words and Records keys) as well. To do so:

    • Click on the Search Keys button and select a search key under Advanced Search which corresponds to the language of your term. The options are:

      • English Words - entry terms
      • English Words - textual support
      • English Records

      • French Words - entry terms
      • French Words - textual support
      • French Records

      • Spanish Words - entry terms
      • Spanish Words - textual support
      • Spanish Records

      • Portuguese Words - entry terms
      • Portuguese Words - textual support
      • Portuguese Records

      • All Records (searches for your term in the four languages)
    • Click on Back to Search Results on the upper right-hand side of the window and launch the search for your term.
  • Use Boolean search operators, noting that the Boolean search operators can only be used with Advanced Search keys (i.e. Words and Records keys). To do so:

    • Enter your word or the first word in your word combination in the search field.
    • Enter a Boolean search operator:

      • a plus sign [ + ] to use the Boolean operator AND,
      • a comma [ , ] to use the Boolean operator OR,
      • an exclamation mark [ ! ] to use the Boolean operator AND NOT.
    • Enter your additional word(s) separated by the Boolean operator of your choice.
    • When the last word has been entered, click on the Launch button Launch the search or press the Enter key on your keyboard to launch the search.
  • Make sure the term contains neither a Boolean search operator (a plus sign, a comma or an exclamation mark) nor a wildcard (an asterisk or a question mark). For more information on how to perform a search when the term includes such characters, see the sections entitled Can I use wildcards in my searches? or How can I use Boolean operators?

What is the Source hyperlink following a term and textual support on a record?

The Source hyperlink provides information about the source (document or person) of the entry term or textual support (definition, observation, etc.). To see the sources (or the bibliographic information) for a record, click the grey Source button immediately following the entries or textual support.

What is the meaning of the usage parameters following a term?

Types of parameters and description of their function

CATEGORY NAME AND DESCRIPTION

Temporal labels

FORMER NAME: A parameter indicating that the entry term was used at one time and that, as a result of a decision taken by a competent authority, it has been replaced by another.

ARCHAIC: A parameter indicating that the entry term is no longer or is barely understood today and is no longer used in everyday written or spoken language, except for stylistic effect.

OBSOLETE: A parameter indicating that the entry term, widely used in the past to designate a given concept and still comprehensible today, is no longer in general use.

Acceptability rating

AVOID: A parameter indicating that the entry term, for one reason or another, is not recommended or is unacceptable to some authors, specialists or organizations.

CORRECT: A parameter indicating that the terminologist who prepared the record is certain, based on personal research and personal knowledge, that the entry term is accepted by specialists in the field and that it can be used freely to designate a particular concept, taking into account relevant information provided on the record. In the case of an official title, this parameter indicates the official and fixed status of the title; it is assigned on the basis of the official written sources cited on the record.

UNOFFICIAL: A parameter indicating that the entry term (a title) is used, but is not officially approved.

NO RATING: No rating indicates that:

  • the terminologist could not say whether it is correct to use the entry term in a particular subject field

    or that
  • no terminologist has determined the correctness of the entry term.

Origin

CAS NO.: A parameter indicating that the entry term is a number assigned to a chemical by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS).

CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM CODE: A parameter indicating that the entry term is the code of a specific classification system (except occupational codes).

FORM CODE: A parameter indicating that the entry term is a code given to a form by an organization.

ISO/IEC 2382 ITEM NO.: A parameter indicating that the entry term is the number of an entry in the Information Technology - Vocabulary (ISO/IEC 2382 standard). (ISO: International Organization for Standardization; IEC: International Electrotechnical Commission).

OCCUPATIONAL CODE: A parameter indicating that the entry term is a military occupational code, a National Occupational Classification (NOC) code or the code of another occupational classification system.

PUBLICATION CODE: A parameter indicating that the entry term is a publication code (military or other), for example a STANAG (NATO standardization agreement), AXP (allied exercise publication), AWP (allied weather publication) or ISO standards publication code.

FORMULA: A parameter indicating that the entry term is a chemical, physics or mathematical formula.

LATIN: A parameter indicating that the entry term is a Latin term, regardless of the subject field in which it is used. Latin terms are used in many fields. They are used as names of plant species such as Paeonia arborea, as names of animal species such as Homo sapiens, as medical and veterinary terms, namely anatomical terms such as auricula, as legal terms such as de facto, as economic terms such as per annum, as religious terms such as viaticum, as proverbs such as Anguis in herba, etc.

Parameters indicating that the entry term comes from a specific federal or provincial act or regulation, i.e. the term was found exclusively in the referenced act or regulation. (They are therefore not used for terms found in several acts or regulations.) The legal origin parameters are the following:

FEDERAL ACT
MANITOBA ACT
NEW BRUNSWICK ACT
ONTARIO ACT
QUEBEC ACT
FEDERAL REGULATION
MANITOBA REGULATION
NEW BRUNSWICK REGULATION
ONTARIO REGULATION
QUEBEC REGULATION

TRADEMARK: A parameter indicating that the entry term is a trademark, business name, brand name or other patented designation for a product, process, etc.

PROPOSAL: A parameter indicating that the entry term was proposed as an equivalent by a terminologist, a translator, a specialist or another person, and not found in a written source.

SYMBOL: A parameter indicating that the entry term is a character such as Å for Angstrom, l or L for litre, Na for sodium or ß for beta.

Linguistic parameters

ANGLICISM: A parameter indicating that the entry term contains an element of the English language which is used incorrectly in another language, such as DNA instead of ADNADN in French.

BARBARISM:A parameter indicating that the entry term is incorrectly constructed or coined, or that it is used to express a meaning contrary to standard usage, such as réouvrir (instead of rouvrir).

CALQUE: A parameter indicating that the entry term is the literal translation of a word or an expression, for example être dans l'eau bouillante (instead of être dans de beaux draps) is the calque of the English expression to be in hot water.

DECEPTIVE COGNATE: A parameter indicating that although the entry term resembles a word in another language, it does not have the same meaning. For example, the terms appointment in English and appointement in French differ in meaning.

PLEONASM: A parameter indicating that words in the entry term result in a repetition of ideas, for example to predict in advance.

Reference

SEE OBS (see observation): A parameter indicating that a comment provides information required to understand the entry term or information on the limited use of the entry term.

Parts of speech

ADJ (adjective): A parameter used solely to distinguish an adjective, for example the French adjective meuble (meaning loose or unconsolidated) from a homograph which differs grammatically, for example the French noun meuble (meaning furniture).

Note: A homograph is a word which has the same spelling as another, but a different meaning.

ADV (adverb): A parameter used solely to distinguish an adverb, for example the French adverb dessous (meaning below), from a homograph which differs grammatically, for example the French noun dessous (meaning underwear).

Note: A homograph is a word which has the same spelling as another, but a different meaning.

Note: A homograph is a word which has the same spelling as another, but a different meaning.

PREFIX: A parameter indicating that the entry is used as the first element in compound words, for example femto-.

SUFFIX: A parameter used to indicate that the entry is the last element in compound words, for example -algie.

ADJ. PHRASE (adjective phrase): A parameter used solely to distinguish a group of words used adjectivally from a group of words which differs grammatically. It would be used for example to distinguish the French expression à la nage which plays the role of an adjective in préparation à la nage (meaning cooked in a court-bouillon) from the identical French expression à la nage which plays the role of an adverb in traverser à la nage (meaning to swim across).

ADV. PHRASE (adverb phrase): A parameter used solely to distinguish a group of words used adverbially from a group of words which differs grammatically. It would be used for example to distinguish the French expression à la nage which plays the role of an adverb in traverser à la nage (to swim across) from the identical French expression à la nage which plays the role of an adjective in préparation à la nage (meaning cooked in a court-bouillon).

NOUN PHRASE: A parameter used solely to distinguish a group of words used as a noun from a group of words which differs grammatically.

VERB PHRASE: A parameter used solely to distinguish a group of words used as a verb from a group of words which differs grammatically.

NOUN: A parameter used solely to distinguish a noun, for example the noun variable, from a homograph which differs grammatically, for example the adjective variable.

Note: A homograph is a word which has the same spelling as another, but a different meaning.

VERB: A parameter used solely to distinguish a verb, for example the verb (to) checkmate, from a homograph which differs grammatically, for example the noun checkmate.

Note: A homograph is a word which has the same spelling as another, but a different meaning.

Gender

FEM (feminine): A parameter indicating that the entry term is a noun belonging to the feminine gender.

MASC (masculine): A parameter indicating that the entry term is a noun belonging to the masculine gender.

MASC/FEM (masculine/feminine): A parameter indicating that the form of the entry term, which is a noun, does not vary with gender (i.e. the term is an epicene). For example, the following French terms can be either masculine or feminine, depending on the gender of the person being referred to: acrobate (acrobat), concierge (concierge), élève (student), enfant (child), terminologue (terminologist).

Number

INVAR (invariable): A parameter indicating that neither the form nor the ending of the entry term changes and that the spelling of the word remains the same in the singular or plural form, for example the French term pays is identical whether the term is singular or plural.

PLUR (plural): A parameter indicating that the entry term is plural and that it must be plural in order to designate the concept or to ensure correct usage, for example scissors.

Geographic parameters

Note: In the case of official titles, these parameters identify the corresponding geographic location or territorial scope. In the other cases, these parameters are used to delimit the region where a term or expression is used.

Examples of geographic parameters:
AFRICA, ANTARCTICA, CANADA, FRANCE, GREAT BRITAIN, LATIN AMERICA, MEXICO, NEW BRUNSWICK, SPAIN, USA.

NATO: A parameter indicating that the entry term was adopted by NATO.

INTERGOV (intergovernmental): A parameter indicating that the entry term, which is a proper name, covers various levels of government within a country. This would apply for example to names of agreements made between the federal government of Canada and the provincial government of one or more Canadian provinces.

INTERNAT (international): A parameter indicating that the entry term, which is a proper name, such as United Nations, applies to more than one country.

REGIONAL: A parameter used with another geographical parameter to indicate that the entry term applies to a region within the area represented by that other geographical parameter. For example, REGIONAL would be added to the geographical parameter NEW BRUNSWICK to indicate that the French term sagouine is used in a region of New Brunswick (Acadia).

Frequency

LESS FREQ (less frequent): A parameter indicating that the entry term is less frequently used than another entry term, but is not rare. In other words, it indicates that the term is sometimes used to designate the concept described on the record.

RARE: A parameter indicating that the entry term, in comparison to another entry term, is used only exceptionally to designate the concept described on the record. For example, D.N.A. is rarely used as the abbreviation of deoxyribonucleic acid in comparison to DNA.

Sociolinguistic parameters

FAMILIAR: A parameter distinguishing an entry term used in an informal context (i.e. a conversation, an unofficial document, etc.) from a term used in a formal context to express the same idea.

JARGON: A parameter distinguishing an entry term used only by a small group of persons, for example specialists in a particular scientific or technical field, from a more common term used by a lay person to designate the same concept.

Semantic parameters

GENERIC: A parameter indicating that the entry term has a broader meaning than that of its equivalent in another language.

PEJORATIVE: A parameter indicating that the entry term has an unfavourable connotation.

SPECIFIC: A parameter indicating that the entry term has a narrower meaning than that of its equivalent in another language.

Official status parameters

STANDARDIZED: Parameter indicating that the entry term is recommended by a standardizing body.

OFFICIALLY APPROVED: A parameter indicating that, for the sake of uniformity, the entry term has been adopted for internal use by an administrative unit (section, department, organization, etc.).


What is the significance of the CORRECT or AVOID parameters following a term?

CORRECT indicates the terminologist who prepared the record is certain, based on personal research or knowledge, that the term is accepted by specialists in the subject field, and that it can be used without restriction to denote the specific meaning covered by the record.

AVOID indicates that most specialists in the subject field disapprove of the use of the term or that the term is incorrectly used to denote the concept covered by the record, or that using the term could lead to confusion.

If there is no rating on the record, this means that:

  • the terminologist could not say whether it is correct to use this term in this subject field

    or that
  • no terminologist has determined the correctness of this term.

What is the significance of the abbreviations on the record (DEF, CONT…)?

Abbreviation Description
CONT = Context A type of textual support that illustrates both the meaning and the use of a term.
DEF = Definition A type of textual support that describes the meaning of a term, similarly to definitions found in a dictionary.
OBS = Observation A type of textual support that provides terminological, administrative or technical information.
PHR = Phraseologism A type of textual support which illustrates nouns, verbs or adjectives frequently used with the term. These term combinations may be fixed expressions.

What is the purpose of the Saved Records button?

TERMIUM Plus® allows you to store the results of your searches and to print records individually (explained in the section entitled How can I print a record?).

When you click on the Save Record button which is in the bottom right-hand corner of each record, the contents of the record are copied to a separate browser window. When the record is saved, that button's label changes to Record Saved.

A maximum of 10 records can be added to a separate window during a single work session. If you add an eleventh record, it will become the first of the 10 saved records.

To see the saved records, click on the Saved Records button in the left menu.

To return to the search page, click on Back to Search Results or press on the keyboard Enter key.

What is the purpose of the Search History button?

TERMIUM Plus® keeps a record of the terms found during a work session. You can click on the Search History button (in the left menu) to see the list of terms found previously. To relaunch a search, just click on a term.

How can I print a record?

TERMIUM Plus® allows you to print either directly from the records display window or from the Saved Records window (see the section entitled What is the purpose of the Saved Records button? ).

To print records using the Saved Records window:

  • Click on the Save Record button at the bottom of each record of interest in the window displaying your search results.
  • Click on the Saved Records button to open the corresponding window. The saved record(s) should appear there.
  • Click on File and Print in your browser's menu (or simultaneously press on the Ctrl and P keys), pick an option and click on Print.
  • Return to the main search page by clicking on the Back to Search Results button or by pressing on the Enter key.

Note: When you use the Saved Records window to print, TERMIUM Plus® will automatically print ALL the records saved in that window. It is therefore recommended to delete any unwanted records before launching the print command. You can delete all records saved previously in the Saved Records window by clicking on the Delete All Saved Records button on the right-hand side of the window or use the Delete Saved Record button at the bottom of each saved record to delete records individually.

What is the purpose of the My TERMIUM button?

You can customize your TERMIUM Plus® interface at all times in just a few minutes by using the My TERMIUM button in the menu on the right-hand side of the screen, above the Index. Just click on the button, pick your preferences, and click on the Save Settings button to save all your preferences. The next time you sign in, your customized interface will be displayed.

The My TERMIUM button allows you to modify the following:

  • screen display (full-screen or not)
  • the default value for the search key
  • the order of display of the English and French modules and the display of the Spanish module or the Portuguese modules
  • the way to display records in a subject field (either by clicking in the RESULTS BY SUBJECT FIELD list or by using the arrow button)
  • the display of textual support (definitions, examples, etc.) on records
  • spacing between entry terms and between justifications

To go back to the original settings:

  • Click on Reset to Initial Default Values.

When customizing your interface, cookies are used to save your settings. Ensure that the "cookies" setting is enabled in your browser so that the next time you visit TERMIUM Plus®, you can bypass this page and go directly to the application.