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9.18 Reference Notes, General

Reference notes may be found within a text (in-text notes), but are usually presented at the foot of a page (footnotes) or at the end of a chapter or document (endnotes). Reference notes pertain to works that have been directly cited or paraphrased, whereas a bibliography lists the works consulted. Footnotes and endnotes are generally referenced by means of a raised (superscript) numeral, letter or symbol immediately following the item in question. The superscript follows all punctuation marks except the dash:

  • As Kenneth Dyer points out in a recent article,1 the ambassador’s criticism of the countries involved2—India, Pakistan and Bangladesh—upset a number of delegates.

The principal differences between notes and bibliographies are as follows:

  • Reference note entries are numbered.
  • The author’s name is not inverted.
  • Components of the entries are separated by commas rather than periods, and there is a space but no punctuation between the title and the opening parenthesis before the publication information.
  • The publication data is placed within parentheses.
  • Page numbers indicate the exact position of the citation.