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9.25 In-text notes

Also known as the author-date system, in-text notes are found in running text or at the end of a block quotation, and consist of the author’s last name (where that is the name under which the work has been listed) and the date of publication of the work, both enclosed in parentheses. This brief form of citation is meant to identify the work being cited, while full bibliographic information is reserved for the list of works cited:

  • (Fleming and Levie 1993)
  • (Joyce, Showers and Rolheiser-Bennett 1987)

Note that there is no punctuation separating the two elements of the note, unless there is a reference to a specific page, volume or other division of the work. Insert a colon, but no space, between volume and page references, and start with the volume number. Unless there is a risk of confusion, omit the abbreviations p., pp. and vol.:

  • (Suzuki 1990, 3:45)
  • (Wiebe 1993, 27)