Enlaces Institucionales


9.26 Author-number system

This alternative involves a numerical arrangement of bibliographic references. Within the body of the text the writer merely cites the name of the author of each source work, along with a key number in parentheses on the same line:

  • As Craven (2) has demonstrated, there is no evidence that extensive feedback played a more significant role in improving students’ writing.

In an accompanying bibliographic reference list, arranged numerically, the first reference to a work contains full details—except in a book with a main bibliography at the end, in which case a shortened note is required—and subsequent notes are as brief as possible, in accordance with the guidelines given in 9.20 Subsequent references. The bibliographic entry for the preceding example is

  • 2. Craven, Mary Louise. "Chinese-Speaking University-Level ESL Students’ Changes to Essay Drafts." Paper presented at TESL Conference, Toronto, November 1988.

The advantage of the author-number system is that footnotes are required only for comments by the writer, examples and allusions. The inherent difficulty is that the writer must keep a running list of source works and appropriate page numbers at the first draft stage in order to ensure that each work is assigned the same number in every pertinent note reference.