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5.26 Other considerations

Clarity should be the primary consideration when communicating numerical information. Present it in such a way that it will be readily grasped by the reader. When writing for non-Canadians, make sure you are aware of the conventions used in the target country. Europeans, for example, who are steeped in the metric system, do not confine themselves as we usually do to multiples of 1000. They will more naturally write 3 dL (decilitres) than 300 mL or 0.3 L. Material written for the European market should conform to this practice.

Remember, too, that in Europe—and in Quebec—1,500 means "one and a half," and 1.500 means "fifteen hundred." The British "billion" is the equivalent of the American "trillion," while a British "trillion" is a million million million. In certain circumstances it may be advisable to write a thousand million or 109 or giga- instead of billion, and a million million or 1012 or tera- instead of trillion, to avoid the risk of misinterpretation. For similar reasons, the abbreviation ppb (parts per billion) should not be used. Rewrite 100 ppb as 0.1 ppm.

Dollar amounts in different currencies should be distinguished from one another by some easily understood marker. A reference to $20 will be ambiguous to a non-Canadian reader and may be taken to refer to American or some other currency. The Translation Bureau recommends the symbol Can$ to represent the Canadian dollar:

  • Can$20

Note: The abbreviation Can$ is sometimes written entirely in upper case: CAN$20.

Although C$ is another symbol frequently used for the Canadian dollar, the Translation Bureau does not recommend it. Since this symbol is also used for the Nicaraguan córdoba oro and occasionally for the Cayman Islands dollar as well, it might lead to confusion in some contexts.

In international or financial texts, the code CAD is often preferred. This code is the one established by the International Organization for Standardization to represent the Canadian dollar; it is composed of the country symbol CA (Canada) and the currency symbol D (dollar). Since this code already contains the symbol D for "dollar," the dollar sign would be redundant and should be omitted. The code is placed before the dollar figure, with a non-breaking space between:

  • CAD 30 million

Where the reader may be in doubt as to which conventions should be followed for writing numerical expressions, the safest course is to adhere to international conventions (see 5.09 Decimal fractions, notes 1 and 2).