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Important notice

Good news! We have updated our writing tools. Writing Tips and The Canadian Style have been combined to create a new tool called Writing Tips Plus.

Don’t forget to update your bookmarks. Within a few weeks, Writing Tips will no longer be available.

To begin your search, go to the alphabetical index below and click on the first letter of the word you are searching for.

bibliographies: general

Bibliographies and reference notes are the means used by authors in all fields to document the source of any quotations or ideas that are not their own.

Bibliographies are indispensable research tools that list books and articles related to a general or highly specialized field of study, in order to help the reader locate and consult a particular book or article. Reference works should always be listed in the same manner within a single bibliography, for reasons of precision, uniformity and clarity.

Bibliographic standards have been established for the translation of a reference work listing from one language to another. The bibliographic style presented in our articles is based on International Standard ISO 690 (entitled Documentation—Bibliographic References—Content, Form and Structure) and on ISBD (International Standard Bibliographic Description) protocols.